Vinegar is the drink, which is produced through the fermentation of ethanol (alcohol) of wine, after a long time, without the addition of sugar with the help of acetic bacteria. It consists mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water.It is used in the kitchen as an cooking ingredient, but historically – as the most readily available mild acid – it has had a wide variety of industrial, medical, and household uses, some of which (such as use as a household cleaner) are still to be applied to date. Commercially vinegar is produced by a fast or slow fermentation process.
In general, slow methods are used for traditional vinegars, the fermentation proceeds slowly and lasts for weeks or even months. The longer fermentation period allows a membrane, which is made up of acetic acid bacteria, to accumulate. This membrane is called “mother of vinegar”.In fast methods, the “vinegar mother” (bacterial culture) is added externally to the liquid, before air is added using a special pump or turbine system to achieve oxygenation and fermentation faster. In fast production processes, vinegar can be produced in a period ranging from 20 hours to three days.

As its name suggests, vinegar is a wine that has become sour under theinfluence of certain bacteria. No one has invented it. Probably someone tried out an old forgotten wine. It is reported that this happened at least 5000 years ago (some say over 10,000 years), probably in different places.However, it was known in the Middle East and China. The Egyptians and Babylonians used it mainly to preserve certain foods. In classical times, in the region of Attica it was called “Attic edema”. The Greeks used vinegar extensively in cooking and in fact they were the first to distinguish differences in quality according to the place of origin.Thus, the vinegar from Sfittos(Attica), Kleones (Nemea), Cnidus (Doric city of Central Asia), Dhekelia (Attica) and Egypt are mentioned as the best. The Athenian states that vinegar is “the only delicacy that is called sweet in Attica”, while Ktisias considers it “the best of flavors”. The ancient physicians Hippocrates and Galen used vinegar in medicine.The Romans distinguished it according to its nature and the way they perfumed it. The Latin writers Koloumela, Palladios, Katon, etc. mention a lot about vinegar and the way it is prepared.Pliny states that in vinegar “there are remarkable virtues and we would lose many of the comforts of civilized life without them.” They used flowers, herbs and fruits to flavor the various types of vinegar they produced in addition to grapes and other fruits such as figs, apples, berries, etc. It was for many years the main drink of Roman soldiers, in combination with water. In the Middle Ages , it is remarkable that the vinegar producers held a prominent position in the local communities, were organized in strong unions, while the secrets and production methods were shrouded in mystery.
However, even the producers, who knew how to control the manufacturing process, did not know what causes acidification (the conversion of alcohol into acetic acid, which produces vinegar). This remained unclear until 1964, when Pasteur studied the role of enzymes and microorganisms. He discovered that acetic fermentation was caused by the bacterium Mycodermaaceti, which is carried by suspended dust. With the help of this bacterium and in the presence of oxygen in the air, alcohol is converted to acid.
As the acetic fermentation continues, the bacteria multiply on the surface to form a thin white film called the “vinegar mother”. The traditional method was systematized mainly in the region of Orleans in France and took its name from it. In 1880 the industry introduced the rapid method of acidification which greatly reduced the cost of its production.

Vinegar is one of the maineffervescent , but also a great preservative for meat, fish, fruits. In ancient times it was for many years the main drink of Roman soldiers, in combination with water. In classical times, in the region of Attica, it was called “Attikonedema”. Finally in the Middle Ages, the producers of vinegar kept secret the methods of its production. Today, vinegar, with the restoration of the Mediterranean diet, regained its place on the table of Greek and foreign consumers.

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